- 1 Anatomy
- 2 Physiology
- 3 Biochemistry
- 4 Pharmacology
- 5 Microbiology
- 6 Pathology
- 7 Forensic Medicine
- 8 Social & Preventive Medicine
- 9 Medicine
- 10 Surgery
- 11 Paediatrics
- 12 Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- 13 Orthopaedics
- 14 Ophthalmology
- 15 ENT
- 16 Skin and Venereal Disease
- 17 Anaesthesiology
- 18 Radiology and Radiotherapy
- 19 Psychiatry
Winging of scapula is due to paralysis of Serratus-Anterior
Median nerve supplies muscles of thumb Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor Pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis.
Patient with trauma to right upper right limb, extension at metacarpophalangeal joint lost, no wrist drop, extension at IP joint normal – Due to involvement of Posterior Interosseous nerve.
Branches of Subclavian artery are Vertebral Artery, Thyrocervical trunk, thoracic artery.
Oesophagus receives supply from Bronchial artery, Inferior phrenic artery, Inferior thyroid artery.
Left gonadal vein drains into Left renal vein.
Shortest part of male urethra is Membranous part.
Mandibular nerve passes through – Foramen ovale.
9th, 10th 11th nerve passes through jugular foramen, 12th doesn’t.
Cranial nerve with largest intracranial course – Trochlear nerve.
Basal ganglia consist of caudate nucleus, Putamen, globus pallidus.
Basilar artery is an unpaired vessel in CNS.
Structures compressed during flexion and abduction of shoulder are Long head of biceps tendon, Supraspinatus tendon, Subacromial bursa.
CO2 is transported in blood mainly as Bicarbonate.
In upper airway obstruction decreased maximum breathing capacity, Decreased FEV and Decreased vital capacity are see.
CCk-PZ causes Gallbladder contraction, Pancreatic Enzyme secretion and Decreased lower esophageal sphincter tone.
Delta cells of pancreas secrete Somatostatin.
In nephron function, Osmolality of intratubular content in PCT is isotonic to surrounding interstitium.
Twitch of single motor unit is called Fasciculation.
Sympathetic stimulation causes Increases in heart rate, BP and total peripheral resistance.
G-CSF and GMCSF in hematopoiesis causes Leucocytosis.
Pain sensitive intracranial stricture is Duramater.
Parasympathetic stimulation causes Pupillary constriction.
Blood brain barrier is present in Habenular nucleus, Cerebellum and pontine nucleus.
EEG waves from hippocampus are Theta waves.
CSF/Plasma glucose ratio is 0.6-0.8
Sperm acquires motility in Epididymis.
Antibodies against sperm may develop after Vasectomy.
Gene coding for androgen receptors is located on Long arm of X chromosome.
Optically active amino acid is Glycine.
Nitric oxide is synthesized from arginine.
Thiamine acts as a cofactor in Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA.
Constituents of dietary fibers are Pectin, Cellulose and Hemicellulose.
Amino acid Leucine is excreted in urine in Maple syrup urine disease.
Ammonia is detoxified in brain to Glutamine.
Gaucher’s disease is due to deficiency of enzyme Glucosidase.
Glucose can be synthesised from Lactic acid,Glycerol and Amino acid.
Polymerase chain reaction has enzyme DNA amplification.
Translation occurs in Ribosomes.
Gout is disorder of purine metabolism.
Best enzyme marker for chronic alcoholism – Gamma glutamyl transferase.
In cytochrome P-450 P stands for Pigment.
Dietary cholesterol is transported to extra hepatic tissue by LDL.
Neostigmine is a Quaternary ammonium compound.
Drug of choice for Acute central anticholinergic syndrome – Physostigmine.
Selective 1-A blocker – Tamsulosin.
1selective agonist – Dobutamine.
Selective 1blockers are Atenolol, Metoprolol and Labetalol.
Selegiline is a selective inhibitor of MAO-B.
Antiepileptic drug Vigabatrin acts by GABA agonism.
Quinidine is a Na+ channel blocker.
Nitrates release NO, causes vasodilation and has high 1st pass metabolism.
Dipyridamole acts by Adenosine uptake inhibition.
Bactericidal drugs are INH, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide.
Drugs for ATT are Kanamycin, Cycloserine and Ofloxacin
Erythromycin acts by interfering with Translocation.
Drug acting on motilin receptors – Erythromycin.
Fluoroquinolones are suspected of having high teratogenic potential, Arthropathy of limb in children may occur and Increase in theophylline toxicity.
Difference between DEC and Ivermectin is that DEC acts on adults and Ivermectin on Microfilariae.
Cyclosporine acs by inhibiting proliferation of IL 2.
Side effects of cis-platinum are Nausea, vomiting, Nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity.
Milk Alkali syndrome is caused by ingestion of Ca-Carbonate.
Pancreatitis is side effect after administration of L-Asparaginase.
Pulmonary infiltration may be seen with Bleomycin, Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide.
SLE like syndrome is most commonly associated with administration of Procainamide.
Prokaryotes are characterised by Absence of nuclear membrane.
IgG can cross placenta.
Type of graft best suited for renal transplantation is Isograft.
Non-Coagulase staphylococci commonly infect indwelling prosthesis,.
Virulence of Pneumococci is due to Polysaccharide capsule.
Diphtheria toxin is phage toxin mediated.
Most common organism responsible for gas gangrene is Clostridium Perfringens.
Most common organism responsible for pseudomembranous colitis is Clostridium difficile.
Vibrio cholerae are transported in alkaline peptone water medium.
In widal test for typhoid H-Antigen titre remains positive for several months & reaction to it is rapid.
Urease positive bacterias are Proteus, Klebsiella and staphylococcus.
Influenza-A is Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase strain specific.
Herpes Zoster is caused by Varicella.
Cryptococcus neoformans is a Fungus.
Commonest parasite of CNS in India is Cysticercosis.
Commonest helminthic infection in AIDS is Strongyloides stercoralis.
Programmed cell death is also called Apoptosis.
Haemorrhagic infarct may be seen in Lung.
Constituents of familial cancer syndrome are Retinoblastoma, Neurofibromatosis and MEN-1
Howell Jolly may be seen after Splenectomy.
Intermediate form of Non hodgkin’s lymphoma is Diffuse small cleaved cell.
Hairy cell leukemia is a neoplastic proliferation of B cells.
Characteristic feature of rheumatic carditis is Pancarditis.
Most common tumour of heart is Myxoma.
Types of glomerulonephritis most likely to cause CRF are Membranous, Membrano proliferative and Focal segmental Glomerulonephritis.
Most common renal lesion seen in leprosy is MGN.
Centrilobular necrosis of liver may be seen with CCl4 .
Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with gut may be seen in HIV infection.
Most common histological type of lung carcinoma in India is Squamous cell carcinoma.
Histologically lung carcinoma with worst prognosis is small cell carcinoma.
Characteristic pathological feature of parkinson’s disease is presence of Lewy bodies.
Pathological manifestation of chronic alcoholism include Ballooning degeneration, Microvascular fatty changes and Central hyaline sclerosis.
Suspended animation may be seen with Electrocution.
Paltauf’s hemorrhage may be seen in Drowning.
Contrecoup injury is a feature of injury of Brain.
Lucid interval may be seen in Insanity.
BAL is used as an antidote poisoning by Mercury.
Karyotyping of foetus may be done from Lymphocyte, Amniocyte and Fibroblast but not from Monocyte.
Transvestism is Wearing clothes of opposite sex.
Social & Preventive Medicine
Indicators of Physical quality of life index (PQLI) includes Infant mortality, Life expectancy at age one and Literacy.
Best comparison of health status of two population is by Standardised mortality ratio.
Study of time, place and person is called Descriptive epidemiology.
Bhopal gas tragedy is an example of Point source epidemic.
Reconstituted measles vaccine should be used within 1 hour.
Diluent used in BCG is Normal saline.
Active immunisation following exposure is given most commonly for Rabies.
Commercially available rabies vaccines are Killed brain vaccine, Human diploid cell vaccine and vero continuous vaccine.
Coronary heart disease presents a decade sooner in western countries compared to India.
Commonest cause of infant mortality in India is Prematurity.
Extra caloric requirement for lactating mother are 550 Kcal/day.
Trace element which cannot be completely supplemented by diet in pregnancy is Fe.
Colostrum is rich in Proteins compared to breast milk.
Child survival and safe motherhood (CSSM) includes Essential newborn care, Acute respiratory disease and Universal immunisation.
In reproductive and child health programme (RCH) districts are divided on basis of Crude birth rate and female literacy rate.
Nalgonda technique is used in Endemic fluorosis.
Post contamination of water is indicated by NItrates.
Osmolality of WHO ORS is 330.
Under registration act of 1969, Death is to be registered within 7 days.
Confidence limit includes Mean and Standard error.
95% confidence limit exists between 2 S.D.
Predictive value of a positive test is defined as True positive / (True positive + False positive) 100
Population covered by a PHC in hilly region is 20,000.
DIfference between Dispensary and a PHC is that a PHC Gives integrated services.
Retrospective evaluation of medical performance is known as Medical audit.
Sickness benefit under ESI is available for a period of 86 days.
Sanitation barrier implies Segregation of faeces.
“Hospice” refers to Special group of people helping the old and terminally ill patients.
LVH is commonly seen with Aortic incompetence.
Commonest site for cardiac myxoma is Left atrium.
In gram negative septicemia, early findings settings before shock of florid is Increased cardiac output and increased Total peripheral resistance.
Hepatic encephalopathy may be precipitated by anemia, Barbiturates and hypothyroidism but not by Hyperkalemia.
Budd chiari syndrome is most commonly due to Hepatic vein obstruction.
Maximum increase in feto protein is seen in Hepatocellular carcinoma.
fetoprotein – Preoperative high level indicates worse prognosis, High level are seen in stomach carcinoma and Levels may be increased in hepatitis.
H. pylori is known to cause Gastric ulcer, Duodenal ulcer and Gastric lymphoma.
Diagnostic tests for H. pylori includes Urea breath test, Rapid urease test and Gastric biopsy & Warthin starry stain.
Epidemiological study of H. pylori are done by using Serological markers.
Acute infection by HBV is characterised by IgM anti HBcAg and HBsAg.
Most important investigation for diagnosis of Zollinger Ellison syndrome is Secretin injection test.
Most common CNS manifestation of Whipple’s disease is Dementia.
Megaloblastic anemia in blind loop syndrome is due to Bacterial overgrowth.
Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with HLA-B27.
Increased alkaline phosphatase is seen in Primary hyperparathyroidism.
Premalignant conditions includes Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and Paget’s disease of bone.
Most common anterior mediastinal tumour is Thymoma.
RNA fragments are sequenced by Northern blot.
Most common group of diseases following Mendelian inheritance are Autosomal dominant.
Smoking predisposes to Carcinoma larynx, Carcinoma bladder and Carcinoma Stomach.
1Antitrypsin deficiency is associated with Panacinar emphysema.
One of the most unlikely cause of acute tubular necrosis is Rupture of aortic aneurysm.
Sweat chloride levels are increased in Ectodermal dysplasia, G6PD deficiency and Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
UMN lesion is characterized by Weakness and spasticity.
“Prosopagnosia’ is characterised by Inability to identify faces.
Most Most common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage is Berry aneurysm.
Non diabetic, non hypertensive adult male developing sudden headache with altered sensorium most likely has Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Painless burn in hand is a characteristic feature of Syringomyelia.
Triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus includes Gait disorder, Urinary incontinence and Dementia.
Known predisposing factors for Alzheimer’s Disease are Down’s syndrome , Low education and Female sex.
Alzheimer’s disease is associated with Dementia.
Gene for myotonic dystrophy is coded on chromosome number 19.
Fatal familial insomnia is associated with Prion disease.
In peripheral neuropathy Glove and stocking anesthesia, Nerve conduction deficit and Decreased reflexes are present.
Subacute combined degeneration is due to Vitamin B12 deficiency, has posterior column and corticospinal involvement.
Commonest site of peptic ulcer is 1st part of duodenum.
COmmon sites for cushings ulcers include Esophagus, Stomach and 1st part of duodenum.
Metabolic changes associated with excessive vomiting includes Metabolic acidosis, Hyperchloremia and decreased bicarbonate.
Dumping syndrome is due to Presence of hypertonic content in small intestine.
Most common site for impaction of gallstones is gallstone ileus is Terminal ileum,,
Pyoderma gangrenosum is most commonly associated with Ulcerative colitis.
Colovesical fistula most commonly arises from Crohn’s disease.
Anchovy sauce pus is a feature of Amoebic liver abscess.
Most common cause of pseudopancreatic cyst in children is Traumatic pancreatitis.
Blood causes least irritation of the peritoneal cavity.
Most common type of Intussusception is Ileo-Colic.
Treatment of choice for patient with CBD stone after 1 year of cholecystectomy is Endoscopic sphincterotomy with stone extraction.
Spigelian hernia is seen in Subumbilical region.
9 year with abdominal pain, recurrent UTI and duplication urethra on IVP. Most likely site of ectopic opening would be Prostatic urethra.
Treatment of choice for 6 week neonate with undescended testes on right side and normal left side is Orchidopexy at 2 years.
Treatment of extragonadal germ cell tumour is Chemotherapy.
60 year old hypertensive patient with 2nd grade prostatism admitted for prostatectomy developed Myocardial infarction. Treatment of choice should be Terazosin.
55 year old diabetic presented with impotence with history to get erection after papaverine intracavernous injection. On colour doppler no abnormality of arteries but shows mild venous run-off. Treatment of choice is Vacuum constriction device.
25 year old female presenting with infertility has undergone retroperitoneal lymph node dissection at age of 15 years for embryonal carcinoma of right testis. Semen analysis shows quantity-0.5 ml, no sperms, no fructose. Biopsy of testis shows normal spermatogenesis. Best treatment would be Micro Testicular aspiration and intracytoplasmic injection.
Breast cancer is a familial carcinoma.
Commonest cause of pulmonary embolism is Thrombosis of leg veins.
CABG is done to reduce symptoms, to prevent further catastrophes and to prolong life.
Commonest presentation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is Painless enlargement of lymph node.
50 year old male presenting with 3 months history of right sided cervical lymph node enlargements. Best investigation to establish the diagnosis is Lymph node biopsy.
Ainhum is seen in Base of toe.
Renal collar which surrounds the aorta has it’s 2 limbs split by Left renal vein.
Lady VVF due to prolonged labour one year back. On examination ectopic opening is found on intraureteric bar, close to the opening of right ureter. Treatment of choice is Transperitoneal transvesical fistula repair with reimplantation of right ureter.
Increased nuchal fold thickness is a feature of Down’s syndrome.
Neural tube defects are prevented by Folic acid.
Fragile X syndrome is characterised by Long face, large ears and Large testis.
Increased acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid indicates Open neural tube defects.
triple test for diagnosis of Down’s syndrome includes HCG, feto protein and serum oestriol level.
Kwashiorkor is characterized by Edema, Patchy depigmentation of hair and Fatty liver.
Caloric supplementation required for a severely malnourished child (per kg-body weight) is 175 cal/kg.
In IUGR Head circumference is 3 cm more than chest circumference.
Features of cold injury are Bradycardia, Scleroma and Metabolic acidosis.
Neonate born to infected hepatitis B mother should be treated with Immunoglobulins and hepatitis B vaccine.
Increased fecal fat excretion and increased fecal nitrogen level in children is seen in Pancreatic insufficiency.
Child presenting with headache, dizziness, intermittent claudication with occasional dyspnea has most probable diagnosis of COarctation of aorta.
Most common site of coarctation of aorta is distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery.
Most common malignancy in children is Lymphoma and leukemia.
Acute lead poisoning in children commonly present with Encephalopathy, Cerebellar ataxia and status epilepticus.
Common posterior fossa tumours include Medulloblastoma, Ependymoma and Cystic astrocytoma.
Porencephaly refers to Vascular lesion due to degenerative vessel disease.
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Treatment of the lutein cyst in hydatidiform mole is Section evacuation.
Red degeneration of fibroma during pregnancy is most commonly seen at 3rd trimester.
Drug of choice of pregnant women in 2nd trimester presenting with UTI is Ampicillin.
Retention of urine in a pregnant women with retroverted uterus is most commonly seen at 12-16 weeks.
Highest rate of transmission of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is during 3rd trimester.
Non immune hydrops fetalis is seen in Thalassemia, Parvovirus 19 and Chromosomal anomaly.
Antiepileptic most likely to cause malformation in foetus during pregnancy is Phenobarbitone.
Drug which could be used in premature arrest of labour – Magnesium sulphate.
During fetal life maximum growth is caused by Insulin.
CA-125 is increased in TB of genital organ, Ovarian cancer and Endometriosis.
Hormone dependent carcinoma includes Prostate cancer, Endometrial cancer and Breast cancer.
GnRH hormone may be given in Prostate cancer, Fibroadenoma of uterus and Precocious puberty.
Carcinoma of endometrium with positive superficial inguinal lymph node status is classified as stage IV
Long term tamoxifen therapy may cause Endometrial cancer.
Precocious puberty may be seen in Granulosa cell tumour, Head injury and Corticosteroid intake.
Menstruation is defined as precocious if it starts before the child reaches the age 10 years.
Primary supports of uterus includes Trans cervical ligament, Pubocervical ligament and Uterosacral ligament.
Oral contraceptive pills reduce incidences of Salpingitis, Ovarian carcinoma and Fibroadenosis.
Irregular vaginal bleeding might be a side effect of mini pill.
RU-486 is used for inducing abortion in early weeks of pregnancy.
Characteristic features of Rokitansky Kuster Hauser syndrome are Absent uterus, Absent vagina and XX.
Sequestrum, Amyloidosis and Metastatic abscess are associated with Chronic osteomyelitis.
One of most common causes of Actinomycosis is Mandible.
Defective mineralisation of proximal zone if cartilage and epiphyseal is a feature of Rickets.
One of the most common sites of avascular necrosis is Talus fracture.
Commonest fracture leading to fat embolism is Femoral fracture.
Jefferson’s fracture is a C1 fracture.
Osteoarthritis is associated with Decreased joint space, Subarachnoid sclerosis and Osteophyte formation.
According to newer hypothesis Ewing’s sarcoma arises from Medullary cavity.
Most common nerve involvement in volkmann’s ischemic contracture is Median nerve.
Direct distant ophthalmoscopy is done from distance of 25 cm.
Mydriatic used in 3 year old child for refraction is 1 % Atropine ointment.
Dendritic keratitis is characteristic of Herpes virus.
Treatment of choice for acute anterior uveitis is Local steroids.
Treatment of 1st degree angle closure glaucoma is Laser Iridotomy.
Function of superior oblique muscle is Depression with inward rotation.
3rd nerve palsy causes Ptosis, Mydriasis and Pupillary reflex loss.
In unilateral afferent pupillary defect, when light is moved from normal to affected eye, there is Dilatation in both pupils.
Ipsilateral optic atrophy with contralateral papilloedema is a feature of Foster kennedy syndrome.
Increased ICT is associated with Disc oedema, Macular oedema and Normal vision.
Ptosis with weakness of orbicularis oculi is a n early feature of Myasthenia gravis.
Weakness of extraocular muscle may be seen in Fisher syndrome, Myasthenia gravis, Eaton lambert syndrome and Thyrotoxicosis.
In “cold caloric stimulation test”, the cold water induces movement of eyeball towards the opposite side.
ASOM most frequently resolves without sequelae.
Acoustic neuroma most commonly arise from Superior vestibular nerve.
quinsy is synonymous with Peritonsillar abscess.
Tracheostomy tube consists of 2 metallic tubes made of silver alloy and titanium oxide and cuffed tubes are used for IPPV.
Montgomery tube used in ENT procedures is Silicone T tube.
Child treated with H. Influenza meningitis for 6 months. Most IMP investigation before discharging the patient is Brainstem evoked auditory response.
Direction of nasolacrimal duct is Downwards, backwards and laterally.
Rhinosporidiosis presents as a nasal polyp.
Alkaline nasal douche contains of Sodium chloride, Sodium bicarbonate and sodium biborate.
Skin and Venereal Disease
Commonest cause of airborne dermatitis in India is Parthenium.
Patch test is read after 2 days.
Atopic dermatitis is diagnosed by Clinical examination.
Cutaneous tuberculous secondary to underlying tissue is called Scrofuloderma.
Satellite lesions are seen in Borderline tuberculoid leprosy.
Thalidomide is the drug of choice for Lepra type II reaction.
Permethrin is used in treatment of Scabies.
Chancroid may be caused by Herpesvirus hominis.
Cicatricial alopecia is seen in Discoid lupus erythematosus.
Endotracheal tube reduces normal anatomical dead space.
Local anesthetic Cocaine causes vasoconstriction.
Repeated uses of Halothane causes Hepatitis.
Muscle relaxant contraindicated in renal failure is Gallamine.
Anatomical dead space is increased by Atropine, Halothane and Inspiration.
Radiology and Radiotherapy
NMR is based on the principle of Proton beam.
Impaired renal function is assessed by DTPA.
Patient with ARF with complete anuria but normal USG, next investigation would be Radio renogram.
Most common complication of myelography is Headache.
In cerebral angiography dye is injected through Femoral artery.
Most sensitive investigation for air embolism is Doppler ultrasound.
Ir192, Au198 and Cs137 may be used in interstitial brachytherapy.
Cardiotoxicity caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy is best detected by Endomyocardial biopsy.
Delusion is a disorder of Thought.
Hallucination is a disorder of Perception.
Hallucinations are Perception occurring without external stimulation.
Buprenorphine, Alprazolam and Dextropropoxyphene have abuse liability.
Mechanism of action of fluoxetine is by Serotonin uptake inhibition.
Disulfiram inhibits both Alcohol and Aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Kleptomania means Irresistible desire to steal things.
Irresistible urge to move about with inner restlessness is called akathisia.
A period of normalcy in between two psychotic disorders is a feature of Manic depressive psychosis.
Drug of choice for rapid cycling MDP is Lithium.
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