Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis form the anterior wall of Anatomical snuff-box.
Ape thumb deformity is seen in involvement of Median nerve.
Trapezius is attached to Clavicle, Scapula and Occiput.
Trendelenburg sign is positive in paralysis of Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus and Tensor fascia lata.
Medial rotation and abduction of hip-joint is caused by Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus.
Anterior cruciate ligament prevents Anterior dislocation of tibia.
In upper end of tibia Ossification center at the upper end fuses by 20 years, It gives attachment to meniscal cartilage on intercondylar ridge and semimembranosus.
Thoracolumbar fascia is Attached to spinous process of lumbar vertebra, transverse process of lumbar vertebra and gives attachment to Transverse abdominis and internal oblique.
Components of spermatic cord includes Genito femoral nerve, Vas deferens and Pampiniform plexus.
Common bile duct opens 10 cm distal to the pylorus, lies anterior to IVC and Portal vein lies posterior to it.
Components of urogenital diaphragms includes Left transverse perinei profundus, Right transverse perinei profundus and Sphincter urethrae.
Cranial nerve emerging from dorsal surface of brain is IVth cranial nerve.
Medial wall of orbit is formed by maxilla, sphenoid, ethmoid and lacrimal bone.
Haversian system is found in Diaphysis of long bones.
Hyaline cartilage covers the articular surface of synovial joints.
For synovial joints Stability is inversely proportional to mobility.
Osteoblasts gives rise to osteocytes.
During fight or flight reaction, Sympathetic system mediated cholinergic release is responsible for increase in local blood flow.
‘Flare’ in triple repose is mediated by Axon reflex.
Surfactant is produced by Type 2 pneumocytes.
During exercise increase in O2 delivery to muscles is because of Increase in stroke volume, Extraction of oxygen from the blood and increased blood flow to muscles.
Oxygen dissociation curve shifts to right in Diabetic Ketoacidosis, High altitude and Anaemia.
In pulmonary ventilation PaO2 is maximum at the apex.
At the end of isometric relaxation phase Atrioventricular valves open.
Capillaries contains 5% of total blood volume of the body.
Fat in duodenum lumen stimulates gall bladder contraction.
Principle site of absorption of sodium is Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Principle site of acidification of urine is Collecting duct.
Nightmare is seen in REM sleep.
Salivation of dog when food is given along with ringing bell is an Innate Reflex.
Conscious proprioception is carried by Dorsal column fibers.
Function of stapedius is to protect tge ear from large frequency sounds.
Regarding thyroid hormones T3 is more avidly bound to nuclear receptors than T4, T4 has maximum plasma concentration and T3 is more Active than T4.
High roughage in diet decreases stool transit time.
Most non polar amino acid is Leucine.
Amino acyl t-RNA is required for Methionine, cystine and lysine.
Similarly between Vit-C and Vit-K iw that both help in post translational modification.
Primary defect in Xeroderma Pingmentosa is Formation os Thymidine dimers.
Null mutation is Mutation that leads to no functional gene product.
Insulin uses enzyme receptor for its action.
In chymotrypsin molecule, if serine-195 is substituted for alanine the chymotrypsin will bind but will not cleave.
Pyruvate can be converted directly into Alanine, Acetyl CoA and Lactate.
Rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis is Phosphofructokinase.
Actions of insulin includes Glycolysis, Glycogenesis and Lipogenesis.
Insulin does not facilitate glucose uptake in liver, RBCs and kidney.
Apoprotein B helps in transport of chylomicrons fron intestine to liver.
Mechanism of action of nictric oxide is through cGMP.
DNA fragments formed by the action of restriction endonuclease are separated by Gel electrophoresis.
In crystals molecule are arranged in same orientation and same conformation.
Regarding newtonian force there si no relation between Viscosity and velocity.
Pharmacogenetic conditions includes Malignant hyper pyrexia, courmarin insensitivity and G6PD deficiency.
Binding sites are non specific and one drug can displace the other.
In teratogenicity of a drug, environment cab influence it, it could be related to dose of the drug and it affects specifically at a particular phase of development of fetus.
Beta blocker with peripheral vasodilator action is Carvedilol.
Diagnosis is myasthenia gravis is done by using Edrophonium.
‘Coronary steal phenomenon’ is caused by Dipyridamole.
Nitrate which does not undergo 1st pass metabolism is Isosorbide mononitrate.
Enalapril is contraindicated in Single kidney, Bilateral renal artery stenosis and Hyperkalamia.
Drug of choice for 6 year old presenting with Malignant hypertension is Na Nitroprusside.
Patient of pheochromocytoma can be given Prazosin, Nitropusside and metyrosine.
Drug causing hirsutism and Gynaecomastia is spironolactone.
Spironolactone is contraindicated with Enalapril.
Ethacrynic acid causes increased concentration of Na+ & Cl- in urine with normal bicarbonate.
Treatment to patient containing 40 mg Famotidine OD, Sucralfate and Antacid tablets is irrational because Sucralfate polymerises only when gastric pH is less than 4.
Drug used for gut sterikiin patient of hepatic encephalopathy is neomycin.
A patient taking both Ketokonazole and Tetfenadine is prone for Cardiac arrhythmia.
Drug of choice for epilepsy in pregnancy is Phenobarbitone m
A patient with Parkinsonism getting L-dopa, if Vit B complex is administered concurrently there will be decrease in efficacy.
Treatment of contacts of meningococcal meningitis is by Rifampicin.
Drug of choice for malaria during pregnancy is Chloroquine.
Anti pseudomonal agents includes Ticarcillin, Ceftazidime and Tobramycin.
Anti HIV drug which does not cause peripheral neuropathy is Lamivudine.
A 35 year old patient having Ca Lung and history of lung disease should not be given Bleomycin.
Mesna is given with cyclophosphamide to Amolierate haemorrhagic cystitis.
Irreversible cell injuis indicated by Accumulation of calcium in mitochondria.
Wound contraction is mediated by Myofibroblasts.
Gene inhibiting apoptosis is bcl2.
Marker of B lymphocyte is CD 19.
Chromosome 6 harbours gene for MHC, Genes encoding for compliments are located adjacent to class 1 molecules and Monocytes have MHC class 2 antigens on their surfaces.
Chances of deep vein thrombosis is increased by Oral contraceptive pills, hypertension and Myocardial infarction.
Firm warty vegetations along the line of closure of valves is due to Rheumatic heart disease.
Flat vegetations in pockets of valves are due to Libman sacks endocarditis.
Minimal change disease appears normal under microscope but electron microscope shows loss of foot processes.
Increased IgG depositary are seen in Henoch Schonlein Purpura.
Wire loop lesions are seen in SLE.
Organised glomerular deposits are in kidney is present in Amyloidosis, Diabetic meliitus and Cryoglobulinemia.
Proliferative glomerular deposits in kidney are found in IgA neuropathy.
Bronchiectasis is not premalignant at the same site.
In PAN, cyats are seen in Pancreas, Liver and Heart but not in lungs.
In iron deficiency Anaemia microcytosis preceeds hypochromia, MCHC <50% and it is commonest cause of anaemia in India.
IL2 is produced by T cells.
In a patient of orbital cellulitis, microorganisms on culture show greenish colonies and optochin sensitivity. The most likely organism is Pneumococcus.
Pseudomemranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile which iw a normal commensal of gut and is treated with vancomycin.
E. Coli gets attached to a surface with the help of Fucose.
Chlamydia does not cause Q fever.
Among arboviral diseases KFD is transmitted by ticks.
Rotavirus infection is diagnosed by the presence of Antigen in stool by ELISA.
Causative organism for a patient with sore throat and a positive Paul Bunnel test is EBV.
A patient presents with diarrhoea. Analysis of stool on wet mount shows mobile protozoa without RBCs and pus cells. Diagnosis is Giardiasis.
Latex agglutination study of the Antigen in CSF helps in the diagnosis of Cryptococcus infection.
A company executive travelling world wide, presents with upper abdominal mass and positive casoni’s test. Causative organism could be Echinococcus.
Pulmonary eosinophilia is seen in Hook worm infection, Strongyloidiasis and Visceral larva migrans.
Child fron bihar comes with fever. Blood Examination shows sheathed microfilaria with nuclei upto tail tip. Diagnosis is B. Malayi.
In Cysticercosis autoinfection is a mode of transmission.
Pigs are reservoir of T. solium and Trichinella spiralis.
Majority of finger prints In India are Loop.
Order of purification is Brain, heart, uterus.
Putrefaction is delayed in poisoning due to Carbolic acid and Nux vomica.
Tests for blood includes Benzidine test, Hemochromogen test and Teichmann’s test.
A 24 year old gets married with 14 year old female, having sex with her is rape because Wife age <15 years.
Postmortem appearance on 22 year old lady that would indicate that she has delivered a child are Cervix irregular & external os patulous, body or uterus twice the length of Cervix and uterus is bulky, large and heavy than nullipara.
Best indicator of antemortem drowning is Froth in mouth and nostrils.
Pugilistic attitude us due to Coagulation of proteins of muscle.
Features of lead poisoning includes Abdominal pain, Encephalopathy and Nephropathy.
Addicted patient having visual and tactile hallucinations, black staining of tongue and teeth is due to Coccaine.
Farmer brought ti casualty with restlessness & agitation. Temperature is 103 degree F, flushed face, pupils dilated and fixed. Diagnosis is Dhatura poisoning.
Pond’s fracture is common in Children.
Preventive and Social Medicine
Physical quality of life index (PQLI) includes Literacy rate, Infant mortality rate and Life expectancy at age 1 year.
Primary prevention includes Health promotion, specific protection and Health education.
Primordial prevention is done in population without risk factors.
Gap between primary and a secondary case is Serial interval.
In culex mosquito there is Cyclo-developmental type of biological transmission for filarial parasite.
In point source epidemic All case occur abruptly and simultaneously, within a specific period and there are no secondary waves.
In a propagated epidemic spread depends on herd immunity, person to person transmission occurs and there is slow rise.
Prevalence of all clinical cases of polio can be estimated by multiplying the number of residual paralytic cases by 1.33.
Reverse cold chain is used for Carrying stool samples of polio patient from a PHC to the lab.
Commenest complication of mumps is Orchitis and Oopheritis.
Vector control for Yellow fever around the airport is done up to a distance of 400 m.
Best measure of incidence of TB in a community is Tuberculin conversion index.
Tuberculin test denotes Previous or present sensitivity to tubercle proteins.
In rabies incubation period depends on the site of bite.
Definition of blindness by WHO includes visual acuity <3/60.
In direct standardization Age specific death rate is required for comparison, age composition of population is required and vital statistics are required.
Specificity of a test means, test should identify those without disease, true negatives and it should have 100% Specificity.
In normal standard distribution curve Median is mid value, mode is commonest recurring value and Mean, median mode coincides.
In students t-test standard population is selected, two samples are compared and students t-test map is required for calculation.
A health guide works at Each village level.
Village health guide measures the state of malnutrition in an under 5 child using Mid arm circumference.
Primary health care includes Equitable distribution, intersectoral coordination and appropriate technology.
Community diagnosis is based on Age & sex distribution, vital statistics and incidence and Prevalence.
Health for all by 2000 AD includes All people are accessible to Health care services, all will have socially and economically productive life and equal health status for people and countries.
Net protein utilisation (NPU) for cow milk is 81%, of average Indian food is 50-80% amd if NPU is low, more proteins arr required.
Pasteurisation of milk doesn’t kill thermoduric bacteria, does not kill spores but it kills tubercle bacillus.
Food poisoning within 6 Hours of intake of milk is caused by Staphylococcus Aureus.
Universal precaution is applied to Semen.
ESI ect is not applicable for Educational institutions.
Behavioural science used extensively in PSM is Anthropology.
Retinoblastoma is Autosomal dominant.
Psoriasis, Ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter’s syndrome are associated with HLA B-27 and Uveitis.
A patient with a history of sore throat, diarrhoea and sexual contact 2 weeks ago. Best Investigation to rule out HIV is P24 Antigen assay.
Reverse transcriptase sequence in HIV is best described as RNA-DNA-RNA.
Multifocal tumour of vascular origin in a patient of AIDS is Kaposi sarcoma.
Patient with HIV has diarrhea with AFB+ organism in stool. Most likely organism is Mycobacterium avium intracellulare.
28 year female with diarrhea, confusion, high grade fever, bilateral pneumonitis. Diagnosis is Legionella.
Hepatitis C virus is associated with Anti LKM-1 antibody.
Chronic liver disease is caused by Hepatitis C.
Non parenteral Hepatitis is Hepatitis E.
Reverse transcriptase of Hepatitis B virus is coded on the P gene.
A blood donor is not considered for safe transfusion if he has HBs Ag & IgM anti HBc positive.
During an epidemic of Hepatitis E, fatality is maximum in Pregnant women.
Arsenic causes Basal cell carcinoma.
Arsenic causes Portal Hypertension.
Increased B12 level is seen in Cirrhosis, Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and Hepatitis.
38 year old chronic alcoholic presents with pain in abdomen. On Examination liver is enlarged and serum alpha fetoprotein is elevated. Most likely diagnosis is Hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cause of acute loss of vision in a patient of alcoholic pancreatitis is Purstchner’s Retinopathy.
EBV, HIV and H. Pylori can cause GIT cancers.
Hypoglycemic unawareness that occurs in diabetic patients when transferred from oral Hypoglycemics to insulin is due to Autonomic neuropathy.
Patient with central diabetes insipidus will have lab values of 50 urinary osmolality and 300 serum osmolality.
Inappropriate ADH secretion is characterised by Water intoxication, expanded fluid volume and Hypomagnesemia.
Thymoma is associated with Myasthenia gravis.
Laboratory Investigation of a patient shows decreased T3, T4 and TSH. It could be due to Pan hypopituitarism, liver disease.
Asymptomatic hypercalcemia in a 30 year old male could be due to Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Causes of ascending motor paralysis includes Diabetes mellitus, Gullien Barre syndrome and Porphyria.
Subdural empyema is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pure motor paralysis is seen in polio.
Best Investigation For patient with cavitation lesion in right upper lobe of lung is bronchoscopy, lavage and brushing.
Most common site of primary which would have secondaries in adrenals is Lung.
For drug to be delivered by a nebuliser size of droplet for it’s humidification is <5 micrometers.
Coombvs positive hemolytic anaemia is seen in chronic active hepatitis, Primary billiary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis.
In anaemia of chronic diseases there is decreased serum Fe, decreases total iron binding capacity and increased bone marrow iron.
In Henoch Scholein purpura there is Abdominal pain, arthritis and GI bleed.
In Hodgkins lymphoma characteristic cell is Reed Sternberg cell, mediastinal involvement is common in nodular sclerosing type and there is increased in Eosinophils, plasma cells and neutrophils.
Intermediate grade of NHL are Diffuse small cell cleaved, Diffuse large cell and Diffuse mixed.
In Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy there is Asymmetric Hypertrophy of septum, dynamic LV outflow obstruction and double apical impulse.
In vitamin K deficiency most likely there will be increase in Prothrombin time.
In nephrotic syndrome there is hypo proteinemia, oedema and hyperlipidemia.
8 year old with history of diarrhea followed by decreased urine output. Blood Examination shows thrombocytes 90,000/cm3. Diagnosis is Hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Post Streptococcal glomerulonepthritis, secondary to skin infection is more common in summer.
Salt losing nephritis is a feature of Interstitial nephritis.
Causes of osteoporosis includes Thyrotoxicosis, chronic heparin therapy and old age.
Erosive arthritis is seen in Gout, osteoarthritis and old age.
3 years old male patient develops involvement of proximal and distal interphalageal joints and 1st carpo-metacarpal joints with sparing of wrists and metacarpo-phalangeal joints. Diagnosis is osteoarthritis.
Probable cause of 45 years old male who is known case of chronic renal failure developing eugger jersy spine is Secondary hyperparathyroidism.
False positive VDRL is seen in Infectious mononucleosis.
FTA-ABS presents in secondary syphilis, is a specific test and it may be positive in Lyme’s disease.
Patient with total parenteral nutrition for 20 days presents with weakness, vertigo and convulsions. Diagnosis is Hypomagnesemia.
Structure preserved in radical neck dissection is Vagus Nerve.
In skin grafting partial thickness grafts involves epidermis and part of dermis, full thickness graft includes epidermis, dermis without subcutaneous tissue and full thickness graft has cosmetic value.
For elective surgery on patient taking heavy dose of aspirin, aspirin has to be stopped 7 days before doing surgery.
Postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism is seen in Obese male, pregnant female and oestrogen therapy.
25 year old male presenting with opthlamological signs of Thyrotoxicosis could be due to Diffuse thyroi goiter, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and adenomatous goiter.
Cardiovascular findings in elderly Thyrotoxicosis are Systolic ejection mumur, scratch in left 2nd intercostal space and irregularly irregular pulse.
Management for post thyroidectomy patient developing signs and symptoms of tetany is iv Calcium gluconate.
Most common cause of thyroiditis is Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.
In early post cibal syndrome there is Distension of abdomen, managed conservatively and has hypermotility of intestine is common.
Massive Bleeding per rectum in a 70 year old patient is due to Diverticulosis.
42 year old company executive presents with sudden upper GI bleed of 5 liters of bright red blood, with no previous history. Diagnosis is Duodenal ulcer.
Massive colonic Bleeding in a patient with diverticulosis is from Superior mesenteric artery.
Gangrene of intestine is seen in Shock, mesenteric artery stenosis and volvulus.
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is caused by compression of distended duodenum, is common in young females and it does not occur in obese individuals.
Multiple strictures in intestine are found in Radiation enteritis.
Patient presents with malena, hyperpigmentation over lips, oral mucosa and skin, and his sister is also having similar complaints. Diagnosis is Peutz Jegher’s syndrome.
Most common surgical cause of obstructive jaundice is CBD stone.
Patient presents with abdominal pain, jaundice and malena. Diagnosis is Hemobilia.
Most common tumor of spleen is Lymphoma.
Absolute indications of splenectomy includes Splenic abscess, hereditary spherocytosis and Fibrosarcoma.
Organism causing infection in patients following splenectomy is Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Most common cause of rupture of tendon is Overuse.
Meconium Iieus is associated with Fibrocystic disease of pancreas.
17 years old girl presents with history of generalised abdominal pain, fever, recurrent vomiting. Temperature is 103 degree F, right iliac fossa tenderness, WBCs are 19,600/mm3 is due to Ruptured appendicular abscess.
For Fibrocystic disease of breast, most common age is 30-40 years, FNAC is helpful in diagnosis and excision may be done.
Full term, small for date babies are at high risk of Hypoglycaemia.
4 year old child with history of blue patch over eyelids which disappeared at age of 1 year. Diagnosis is Salmon patch.
Total and direct bilirubin should be measured in a newborn presenting with hyperbilieubinemia.
Management of a newborn when mother has active tuberculosis and is taking ATT is BCG + INH for 6 weeks + breast feeding.
Ductus arteriosus may cause a machinery murmur by it’s patency.
A 4 month old child with grade IV vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) without dilation of urinary bladder. Treatment of choice is Reimplantation of ureter.
6 year old girl presented with recurrent E. coli infection. USG abdomen shows hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Micturating cysto urethrogram shows filling defect in urinary bladder. Likely diagnosis is Ureterocele.
Hepatosplenomegaly, high fever with rash and elevated ESR are seen in Systemic juvenile arthritis.
Brain tumour in children is mostly infra tentorial.
In 3 weeks old child with phenylketonuria Provocative protein meal helps in the diagnosis, tyrosine becomes an essential amino acid in diet and Serum Phenylalanine is increased and urinary phenyl pyruvate level is elevated.
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Girl with cystic swelling at the junction of lower 1/3rd and upper 2rd of anterior wall of vagina at O’clock position. Diagnosis is Gartner’s cyst.
Sequence of development of puberty in girls is Thelarche, Pubarche and Menarche.
15 year old girl with weight gain, oligomenorrhoea and hirsutism. Diagnosis is Polycystic ovarian disease.
16 year old female presents with primary amenorrhea, short blind avagina with absent uterus. Next investigation of choice is Karyotyping.
Woman treated for infertility, presents with 6 week amenorrhea with urinary retention. Most likely diagnosis is Impacted cervical fibroid.
Female with 6 weeks amenorrhea presents with ovarian cyst. Proper management is Ovariotomy at 2nd trimester.
21 year old girl with 8 weeks amenorrhoea comes with shock. Most likely diagnosis is Ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
Women presents with thick curdy white discharge from vagina. Best treatment for her is Miconazole.
Prophylactic chemotherapy is indicated after evacuation of H mole when Initial levels of urine HCG is 40,000 IU after 6 week of evacuation, increase in HCG titre 24,000 IU after 10 week if evacuation and Metastasis.
32 year old female with history of 2 mid trimester abortions comes with 32 weeks of pregnancy and labour pains with OS dilated 2 cm. Drugs that could be given are Betamethasone, Antibiotics and Tocolytics.
Prognosis of gestational trophoblastic disease depends on blood group, parity and previous HCG titre.
Stage of Ca endometrium with invasion of 10 mm of myometrium is 1b.
Best investigation to establish diagnosis of endometriosis is Laparoscopy.
35 year old female with a previous history of birth of a child with down’s syndrome with 18 weeks amenorrhoea. The investigation of choice to rule out down’s syndrome in the present pregnancy is Amniocentesis.
32 weeks pregnant lady presents with labour pains, cervix dilated and uterine contractions felt. Management is Isoxsuprine hydrochloride.
Ventouse in 2nd stage of labour is contraindicated in Preterm labour.
Characteristic problem in females taking norethisterone is Irregular bleeding.
Pelvic inflammatory diseases occur least commonly with condom.
Side effects of depot MPA are weight gain, irregular bleeding and amenorrhea.
Women is suffering from rheumatic heart disease with one live tissue. Contraceptive of choice is Condom with spermicidal jelly.
In fracture of clavicle most common complication is malunion.
Boy with fracture of neck of humerus cannot raise his arm due to involvement of Axillary nerve.
In children Dislocations are rare, have thick periosteum and soft bones.
8 year old child with spiral fracture of humerus and varying degree of ecchymosis all over the body. Etiology is Battered baby syndrome.
Negative Trendelenburg’s sign and inter trochanteric fracture is because of Tensor fascia lata.
Post polio, a patient has grade 2 power in Gastrocnemius, grade 3 in peroneus and grade 4 in Tibialis anterior. Deformity is Calcaneovarus.
Decreased mineralisation if epiphyseal plate is an growing child is seen in Rickets.
Chondroblastoma is a tumour of Epiphysis.
Chondoma can occur over Clivus, Sacrum and Vertebral body.
Unilateral watery discharge from eye of a newborn with no edema or chemosis is due to Chemical conjunctivitis.
Dislocation of lens is seen in Marchesani syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Homocystinuria.
Digoxin, chloroquine and ethambutol could cause Optic neuritis.
Abduction is spared in involvement of Oculomotor nerve.
Diagnosis of patient with detachment of retina with photopsia with floaters in the eye is Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
40 year old lady with bilateral papilledema and normal ventricles on CT. Diagnosis is Benign intracranial hypertension.
Sauce and cheese retinopathy is seen in CMV.
Most common cause of acute epiglottitis is H Influenzae.
Most common site of Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is at sphenopalatine foramen.
Treatment of Ca larynx in stage T1M0N0 is Radiotherapy.
In esophageal speech dynamic component is Pharyngo esophageal segment.
Primary treatment of middle ear cholesteatoma is Surgery.
Patient with Pancoast’s tumour develops loss of voice after radiation. It is due to Involvement of recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Psoriasis, Lichen planus and acne vulgaris are Autosomal dominant.
Palpable purpura are seen is Cryoglobulinemia, Henoch Schonlein purpura and Drug induced vasculitis.
In lichen planus lymphocytic infiltration is in suprathermal layer, Itchy polygonal, purple purpura re present and skin, hair and oral mucosa are commonly involved.
IN erythema multiforme Target lesions are seen, Involves face and neck regions and is a sign of internal malignancy.
Renal cortical cyst, rhabdomyoma of heart and lung and adenoma sebaceum are seen in Tuberous Sclerosis.
In Psoriasis arthritis is seen in 5% cases, abscess are seen in lesions and non scaly, red lesions are seen in infra mammary and natal regions.
Bullous eruptions on lower limb and trunk with biopsy showing epidermal bullae is due to Pemphigus vulgaris.
In nails onycholysis in psoriasis, Mees line in arsenic poisoning and Pterygium of anil in Lichen planus are seen.
Testosterone is contraindicated in Androgenic alopecia.
Ketamine causes increase in intracranial tension.
Isoflurane has one of the least cardiovascular side effects.
Shortest acting nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant is Mivacurium.
In Magin circuit air flow is Equal to minute volume.
For high pressure storage of compressed gases cylinders are made up of Molybdenum steel.
Mallampati grading is for Inspection of oral cavity before intubation.
Figure of 8 in chest x ray is seen in Total anomalous pulmonary venous connections.
Left cardiac border bulge can be seen in Left appendicular overgrowth, coronary artery aneurysm and Pericardial defect.
Kerley B lines, Pleural effusion and Cardiomegaly are seen in cardiac failure.
Calcification of intervertebral disc is seen in Alkaptonuria.
Best test for diagnosing organic mental disorders is Bender Gestalt.
Amnesia typically occurs in Head injury.
Korsakoff’s psychosis is diagnosed by Impairment of short term memory.
Systemic desensitization therapy is used for Phobia.
A patient always preoccupied with feeling of illness is a case of Hypochondriasis.
Patient with schizophrenia is getting chlorpromazine, but his auditory hallucination not controlled. The next drug to be given is Clozapine.
Man hit by neighbour, next day feels that police is behind him and his brain is being controlled by radio waves by his neighbour. The probable diagnosis is Delusion of persecution.
Lady with accident was in ICU for 6 months. After being discharged she often gets up in night and feels terrified and has fear to sit in a car again. Diagnosis is Post traumatic stress disorder.
Semen’s squeeze technique is used for Premature ejaculation.
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